Cytology studies cell morphological details (cytoplasm, nucleus, cell arrangement, size, pathological changes, etc.).
Cellularity can be sampled by different methods:
• Fine needle aspiration/ fine needle puncture (FNA/FAA) of subcutaneous, cutaneous, visceral lesions or lymph nodes etc.
• Scraping: skin lesions, skin formations, mucous membranes, ulcerated formations, excised formations (per section), etc.
• Impression: mucosal lesions (buccal, preputial, vaginal, conjunctival, etc.), excised formations (by section), various secretions
• Brushing: mucosal lesions, detection of sexual cycle phases
• Centesis: abdominal + thoracic
• Fluid sampling: CSF (cerebrospinal fluid), joint fluid, cystic formations, bronchoalveolar lavage, urine
• Incisional biopsy (ultrasound if appropriate): parenchymal organs, subcutaneous formations, bone, muscle tissue
• Endoscopy, rhinoscopy, bronchoscopy
• Excisional biopsy: formations of various locations
• Venous puncture
• Faeces: digestive sample, intestinal cellularity