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Cytology is a rapid, inexpensive, minimally invasive and effective diagnostic method with high applicability in any veterinary clinic or hospital.

Cytology studies cell morphological details (cytoplasm, nucleus, cell arrangement, size, pathological changes, etc.).

Cellularity can be sampled by different methods:

• Fine needle aspiration/ fine needle puncture (FNA/FAA) of subcutaneous, cutaneous, visceral lesions or lymph nodes etc.

• Scraping: skin lesions, skin formations, mucous membranes, ulcerated formations, excised formations (per section), etc.

• Impression: mucosal lesions (buccal, preputial, vaginal, conjunctival, etc.), excised formations (by section), various secretions

• Brushing: mucosal lesions, detection of sexual cycle phases

• Centesis: abdominal + thoracic

• Fluid sampling: CSF (cerebrospinal fluid), joint fluid, cystic formations, bronchoalveolar lavage, urine

• Incisional biopsy (ultrasound if appropriate): parenchymal organs, subcutaneous formations, bone, muscle tissue

• Endoscopy, rhinoscopy, bronchoscopy

• Excisional biopsy: formations of various locations

• Venous puncture

• Faeces: digestive sample, intestinal cellularity